"...if anyone makes the assistance of grace depend on the humility or obedience of man and does not agree that it is a gift of grace itself that we are obedient and humble, he contradicts the Apostle who says, "What have you that you did not receive?" (1 Cor. 4:7), and, "But by the grace of God I am what I am" (1 Cor. 15:10). (Council of Orange: Canon 6)


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    "I've Been Reading...": Quotable Quotes from Excellent Books, Issue I

    "I've Been Reading..." - Rev. C. R. Biggs, Issue I

    For the next few weeks, I would like to post brief quotes I have collected from excellent books that I have read and books that I am presently reading for study as a pastor. These quotations are offered as reflections on the Church and our present culture primarily with hopes that it will stimulate our thought and perhaps even suggest some good books (old and new) that you would like to read.

    My first quote is from Alexis de Tocqueville:

    In the early 1840s, Alexis de Tocqueville wrote on his observations of American culture, from politics to religion. In the book 'Democracy in America' he claims in the preface that he writes as a "friend" to Americans, from one who has objectively observed the culture as an outsider from France.

    He claimed that his main purpose in writing the book was to warn Americans of one issue that he believed would be destructive to a society and culture. The issue was INDIVIDUALISM>. We should reflect on how individualism also negatively can affect Christ's Church in the way we think of our identity as Christ's people, our fellowship together, our corporate worship (especially the hearing of the Word and participation in the Sacraments), and our call to bear one another's burdens (Gal. 6:1-2, 8-10):

    Alexis de Toqueville

    "Individualism is a novel expression, to which a novel idea has given birth. Our fathers were only acquainted with egotism. Egotism is a passionate and exaggerated love of self, which leads a man to connect everything with his own person, and to prefer himself to everything in the world.

    Individualism is a mature and calm feeling, which disposes each member of the community to sever himself from the mass of his fellow-creatures; and to draw apart with his family and his friends; so that, after he has thus formed a little circle of his own, he willingly leaves society at large to itself. Egotism originates in blind instinct: individualism proceeds from erroneous judgment more from depraved feelings; it originates as much in the deficiencies of the mind as in the perversity of the heart.

    Egotism blights the germ of all virtue; individualism, at first, only saps the virtues of public life; but, in the long run, it attacks and destroys all others, and is at length absorbed in downright egotism. Egotism is a vice as old as the world, which does not belong to one form of society more than to another: individualism is of democratic origin, and it threatens to spread in the same ratio as the equality of conditions...

    ...As social conditions become more equal, the number of persons increases who, although they are neither rich enough nor powerful enough to exercise any great influence over their fellow-creatures, have nevertheless acquired or retained sufficient education and fortune to satisfy their own wants. They owe nothing to any man, they expect nothing from any man; they acquire the habit of always considering themselves as standing alone, and they are apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands...[Democracy] can throw him back forever upon himself alone, and threatens in the end to confine him entirely within the solitude of his own heart."

    Alexis De Tocqueville, 'Democracy in America', Vol. II, New York: The Colonial Press, 1900, 104-106.

    1 Cor. 12:12: "For even as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body, though they are many, are one body, so also is Christ."

    For further reading:

    Christopher Lasch, 'The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations'; Robert Bellah, et al, 'Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life'.

    Posted by Charles Biggs on May 23, 2007 09:52 AM

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