"...if anyone makes the assistance of grace depend on the humility or obedience of man and does not agree that it is a gift of grace itself that we are obedient and humble, he contradicts the Apostle who says, "What have you that you did not receive?" (1 Cor. 4:7), and, "But by the grace of God I am what I am" (1 Cor. 15:10). (Council of Orange: Canon 6)


  • Rev. John Samson
  • Rev. David Thommen (URC)
  • John Hendryx
  • Marco Gonzalez

    We are a community of confessing believers who love the gospel of Jesus Christ, affirm the Biblical and Christ-exalting truths of the Reformation such as the five solas, the doctrines of grace, monergistic regeneration, and the redemptive historical approach to interpreting the Scriptures.


    Community Websites

    Monergism Books on Facebook


    Latest Posts



    Ministry Links

  • « Buliding Bridges Conference: Southern Baptists and Calvinism | Main | Rejected Redeemers »

    Understanding Free Will

    from the archives - by John Samson...

    Why are you reading this? Yes, this particular sentence? There are billions of sentences out there just waiting to be read, in many different languages, but right now, you are reading this one. Why?

    Well, it could be that some reformed and crazed individual has put a gun to your head and told you that if you did not read this article he would shoot you. He would definitely be what I refer to as a "caged stage Calvinist," when after coming to understand the doctrines of grace, for a period of a couple of years or so, he needs to be locked up in a cage. That's the best thing for everybody concerned!! His zeal for reformational truth needs to be augmented with sanity in human relations! He sends books, tapes, CD's, DVD's, and e-mails to all unsuspecting victims, regardless of whether or not they have ever shown an interest in these things. Christmas is his favorite time of the year, for he's been eagerly waiting for this opportunity to send R. C. Sproul's book "Chosen by God" to everyone he knows. He's on a mission alright, but the best thing would be for him to cool down for a couple of years in a cage!

    However, even with the crazed reformed nut with a gun scenario, you are still making the choice to read this blog article rather than face the contents of the gun. You prefer to read this rather than to feel the impact of the bullet. Even now, you are reading this because you want to - right now you do, anyway. In fact, because this is your strongest inclination, there is no possible way for you to be reading anything else at this moment.

    You are still reading this? Well actually.. it is impossible that you would be reading something other than this right now, and this will continue to be the case until you have a stronger desire to do or to read something else.

    So what exactly is free will? Do people have it? Does God have it? How free is God's will? Can He do what He wants? Can we do what we want?

    These kind of questions are not new of course, but have been the source of countless conversations and debates amongst ordinary folk and the chief theologians of the Church throughout history. Martin Luther, in looking back over his ministry considered his book on the subject of the will to be his most important work. In Luther's mind, to misunderstand the will is to misunderstand the Reformation doctrine of sola gratia. He said, "If anyone ascribes salvation to the will, even in the least, he knows nothing of grace and has not understood Jesus Christ aright."

    I don't believe the issue is particularly complicated, which is why I am attempting to write a brief article on it here. This is not an entire treatise on the will. Blog articles are a lot shorter and simply open the way for further discussion. However, I think enough can be said in a short time to get all of us thinking.

    Coming to an understanding of the human will, though not complicated, is often times hampered by our firmly held traditions and man centered tendencies. We are all born Pelagians at heart, thinking we can be anything we want to be, do anything we want to do, whether or not God has a will in the matter. Human beings have wills. God has a will. But what exactly does it mean?

    Can man do everything he chooses? Can man fly to the moon unaided by machine? Can man go to the North Pole and survive with just a T-shirt, shorts and shoes on? Can man take a deep breath and live under water for a day without oxygen? No, man's free will is limited by his nature. It is not within man's nature and ability to fly to the moon unaided, to survive extreme cold without being sufficiently wrapped up, or to survive in water without oxygen. The problem is not the will - it is the nature of man. Because it is not man's nature to do a thing, he is not free to do the thing.

    Have you noticed, though the term "free will" is banded about every day, you don't actually find the phrase in scripture? That's because man's will has suffered a radical corruption in the Fall. Because our nature as unregenerate human beings has no interest in seeking after God (Romans 3:11), our will chooses, 100% of the time, to turn from God rather than towards him.

    This is not due to some physical handicap, you understand, but rather a moral one - and one we are all responsible for. Adam's sin brought the Fall, which had radical consequences from his progeny. As our federal head and perfect representative, Adam sinned on our behalf. But before we say it is not just for God to declare the entire human race guilty in Adam, we need to understand the other side of the coin. That is the wonderful truth that all who are in Christ are declared not guilty, and reckoned righteous with Christ's perfect righteousness. We can't believe in one of these imputations and not the other and still be biblical in our thinking.

    We were all perfectly represented by Adam. He was a literal human personality, not a legend or myth. All of humanity are represented by Adam and are reckoned guilty because of Adam's sin (Romans 5:12, 19); all those in Christ (the Last Adam) are reckoned just because of Christ's righteousness (Rom 5:17; 2 Cor 5:21). As in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive (1 Cor. 15:22)

    Pastor Steve Weaver writes, "A good definition of free will is the ability of the mind to make choices in accordance with our natures. This definition of "free will" also applies to God's free will. He too is bound by His nature. Therefore, He cannot sin! Why? Because it is not His nature! But God does have a free will and, unlike human beings, He has an accompanying good and holy nature."

    Jonathan Edwards said that the will is the mind choosing: though there is a distinction between mind and will, the two are inseparable in action. We do not make a choice without our mind's approving that choice. We always act according to the strongest inclination at the moment of choice. We choose according to our strongest inclination at a given moment.

    Why did you put on the particular clothes you are wearing today (I am assuming you are not naked as you read this)? It was because the things you put on had more of an appeal to you than anything else in your closet. Now, it may have been that there was nothing else available to you. Even so, your desire to wear something was greater than your desire to wear nothing, hence your choice. Again, we choose according to our strongest inclination at the moment of the choice.

    When we commit a sin, at that moment our desire to sin is greater than our desire to obey Christ. I think that is the most haunting thing about the sins I commit. That at that particular moment when I sinned, the sin was more appealing to me than obeying my Lord. This is the godly sorrow I believe, that works repentance.

    The Bible teaches that I'm not free to choose God because it is contrary to my nature. That's why we need new natures that are given to us by the Holy Spirit at regeneration. Unless a man is born again he cannot enter or even see the kingdom of God (John 3).

    Though man is commanded to seek the Lord while He may be found, and to come to Christ, we watch in vain for man to do so. Romans 3:11 literally reads, "There is no God seeker." John 6:44 says, "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him and I will raise him up on the last day." Literally, the verse says, "no one is able."

    Just like man is not able to fly to the moon unaided, the clear words of Christ here show that man is not able to come to Christ without Divine intervention. Here are some insights from Dr. R. C. Sproul concerning this verse:

    "First, we notice that Jesus said "no one." This is a universal negative statement. It does not mean that some cannot come unless the Father draws them. It means absolutely no one can come unless God does something first. Mankind is so depraved in fallen-ness that, apart from the irresistible grace of God, no one would ever turn to Christ.

    Second, we notice that Jesus said "can." Remember the difference between the words can and may. Can means "is able," while may means "has permission." Jesus is not saying that no one has permission to come to him. Rather, he says that no one is able to come to him. This is the biblical doctrine of man's total inability.

    Third, we notice the word "unless." This introduces an exception. Apart from this exception, no one would ever turn to Christ.

    Finally we come to the word "draw." Some have said that draw only means "woo" or "entice." That is not the case, however. In James 2:6 we read, "Are they not the ones who are dragging you into court?" In Acts 16:19 we find, "They dragged them into the marketplace." The same Greek word is used in all three verses. Obviously, enticement is not in view here in John 6:44. Gerhard Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament says that the word translated draw in John 6:44 means "to compel by irresistible authority." It was used in classical Greek for drawing water from a well. We do not entice or persuade water to leave the well; we force it against gravity to come up by drawing it. So it is with us. We are so depraved that God must drag us to himself." (Chosen by God)

    The beauty of the gospel, however, is that, at the same time, the Spirit's work is to make His elect willing to come. He changes the disposition of rebel human hearts, taking out a heart of stone, and putting in a heart of flesh so that we willingly come. Jesus states, in John 6:44, that all who are drawn in this way are raised up at the last day, signifying that they are raised to eternal life with Christ in heaven.

    John 3:3 Jesus answered him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God."

    John 6:36-37 But I said to you that you have seen me and yet do not believe. All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out.

    John 8:33-34 They answered him, "We are offspring of Abraham and have never been enslaved to anyone. How is it that you say, 'You will become free'?" Jesus answered them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is a slave to sin.

    John 8:47 Whoever is of God hears the words of God. The reason why you do not hear them is that you are not of God.

    John 10:26-27 but you do not believe because you are not part of my flock. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me.

    Recommended Reading:

    Martin Luther: The Bondage of the will
    Jonathan Edwards: The Freedom of the will
    R. C. Sproul: Willing to Believe; Chosen by God

    Posted by John Samson on November 27, 2007 01:13 PM


    Will somebody let me out of this cage!!!;O)

    You need to learn about love. Your opening statment show tells me so.

    What is faith? Eph 2:8-10 says for by grace you have been saved through faith. Is this "faith", ie., believing in him whom He has sent, the only "work" that Jesus said we must do in John 6:29, to be able to do the works of God, ie receive the Holy Spirit, which implies salvation -- Acts 2:38? (Not arguing by any means that salvation requires baptism, I don't believe that is what Acts 2:38 teaches.)

    Having a possessed faith is not work in the sense of salvation. The Spirit regenerates us and gives us the freedom to choose Christ (irresistibly). Without the Spirit's work of regeneration in us, we do not have free will. All we have is bondage to sin.

    the question is not "is there free will or does humankind possess freewill or a will" but "who gave will to man"...Jesus had to surrender his will to God should we or can we do less. Satan inspired freewill in man "God knows when you eat of this tree you will be like him knowing good and evil"...choice was never offered by God for the act of the will there was no need


    Thank you for your thoughts, but I think you may be confusing ideas. Before the fall, man was "able to sin and able not to sin". But after the fall, man is "not able not to sin". So although man has a will, it is a broken will. It is sold as a slave to corruption ... and would never believe the gospel of Jesus Christ apart from the work of the Holy Spirit. Left to ourselves in the flesh, we are dead to spiritual truth. The Spirit must illumine the word to our minds and change our heart of stone to a heart of flesh. Jesus said, the Spirit quickens, the flesh counts for nothing... that is why I told you that no one can come to me unless God grants it." (John 6:63,65)

    John H

    The question on faith is simple. Refer back to your text in Ephesians 2:8-10, "For by faith you have been saved by grace" (that's good stuff, but keep reading) "and that not of yourselves, it is a gift from God". Did you see that part? It is NOT of ourselves. Our faith is not our own, it is a gift from God. Faith=Salvation. Salvation is a gift from God, faith is a gift from God. Your faith is not your own, God planted faith in you. Your faith was given to you. Alot of people don't like to hear that. In fact, they've been trained not to hear that. Why? Because its a scary thought. It relinquishes our human power. We don't want to give that up. Now is when I'd refer to the article and our will vs our nature.

    How embarrassing. I misquoted the scripture that I posted above. *"For by GRACE you have been saved through FAITH". Sorry.

    First, man needs to find himself much less important. Most of this discussion is very ME centric.

    You are "saved" to be God's tools, not so God can serve you. You are saved to do His works. Not saved to make you happy.

    Man has choices to make in life, but that doesn't mean he has free will it means he has freedom to choose. By controlling what you can choose from, I control your destination.

    If you thank God for your opportunities in life, and for your trials and tribulations, you admit He's leading you through life, in fact controlling you. Your future is already lived to Him. There isn't anything you are going to do that isn't in His plan already.

    Paul said sin inside of him kept him from doing what he wanted to do and made him do what he did not want to do. Please, make your free will dreams fit into paul's words without having to rewrite or "Yeah, but!" them until they are inside out.

    What happens if you try to fight against God's plan? Ask Pharaoh, if you read the last request from Moses, Pharaoh was going to give in, but God prevented that by hardening Pharaoh's heart.

    Do you think Judas had control over where his choices were going? Christ being killed wasn't a surprise to God nor Christ, it was the plan from day one. SOMEONE had to betray Christ. it was fore ordained it would occur. How can you look at Judas actions and think it was all on him? IT WAS THE PLAN. Jesus even commanded him to go do it. Proof it was God's plan. God wrote about it a thousand years before, we call that prophecy, God calls it the plan.

    If you can't show free will in the Paulian concepts of the sinful nature above, paraphrased from Romans 7, then you have no business claiming there is free will.

    If I, as God, want you to turn left in this hallway/passage of your life, but the appealing path is to the right for you, I simply create a hall way with 3 left leading doors, and no right ones. Boom, you get a choice, you don't have free will. OR before you cry, put one right leading door with a brick wall closing it off 3' inside of it. You can hear the party on the other side, but you can't break through. You have a choice.

    God knows your choices and they are prefactored into all of creation before you are born. You don't make any choice independent of HIS WILL on earth. To hold that claim is to render God as Santa Claus where HE serves you, not you Him.

    Blessed are the weak in spirit. That means the spirit that depends on God. This free will concept, denies dependence on God and claims man has the ability on their own.

    It's just ludicrous in the big picture, but few of you would care about the big picture, you want to parrot the warm fuzzy cliches of the faith, and avoid the life changing, responsibility required teachings from Christ, Peter, Paul, John, God, Angel of the Lord, Noah, Moses, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Clement, Barnabus, blah blah blah blah blah.

    Man has free will alright, but only to operate in the darkness where he lives. He may have heard about the light, but someone from the light needs to come into the darkness to reveal the reality of the light to him, then he can widen his free will.

    Hello All,

    Please help me understand this discussion better, in light of Genesis 1-3. God creates a place for Him to dwell with humanity, and then Adam and Eve sin and are kicked out of the Garden.

    So, I would like to ask some questions:

    1) If God pronounced creation "Good" and then pronounced Adam and Eve "VERY Good" what happened?

    2) Or do you believe in evolution in place of creation?

    Thank you for your insight!
    God bless you,

    I love how we place limits on God. He can do anything He chooses

    And yet we see over and over again, 10s of thousands of times in fact, that we are persuaded or compelled in the OT and NT to act one way and not another, to confess Jesus as Lord and NOT "I am Lord."

    The Reformers were sloppy, although not for their time in history, with logic. But there is no need for us to inherit their convoluted thinking. I suggest we should take the best of their thinking and leave the worst.

    Calvin, in his "Institutes," takes our diminished nature due to sin, and turns humanity into soulless animals without freedom to even consider the truths of the Gospel. But Paul didn't hold that belief. He argued and persuaded as if his rationality was impacting other rational agents.

    Pelagianism is a boundary-keeping strategy setup like an electric fence. Of coarse we can't throw our "good" works on a scale when we have a near-infinitely weighty counterweight opposite those works in terms of our moral obligation to be holy. But the reformers take. Paul's figurative language way past the text and deny all human freedom to respond. The HS work is to convict and draw, but can't Christians greive the HS? If we have agency to greive, why think we don't have the smallest agency to respond to the gospel?

    Now traditionally Calvinists have said "that is meritorious." Which is univocal to "good works." But of coarse it is equivocal not univocal. Yet another fallacy.

    I suggest we utilize the Reformers writings for what they are, a great historic input in God's working with his ecclesia. But that we also disassemble the most destructive, fallacious, and even demonically inspired double-predestination that seeks to make God into a capricious tyrant who creates people to torture them eternally for his good pleasure.

    This same God forces Adam to sin.

    When great men like James White, John MacArthur, RC. Sproul, and John Piper affirming these incoherent doctrines, we know we have a significant problem. A problem that turns men in to marionettes and God into a tyrant.

    God is not a "tyrant", he is SOVEREIGN! (big difference in perspective there!).

    And WE ARE his marionettes. I just wish I, personally, was more a marionette TO Him, than i usually if not always am to my own horrible sins. :(

    I was in the Orthodox Presby church for 27 about getting out of the cage!

    Reformed Theology (RT) and the will of man involves so much double speak. Heb 3, 6, 10 talk about no being hardened by sin and fall away. So the RT preacher say, "That is not for the Christian, we are secure, it's for the unbeliever." BUT, How can an unbeliever NOT harden his heart on his own will when it's already hard??? RT is full of duplicity.

    I hear the tempered RT types disown the hyper-Calvinist who take God's sovereignty and see no need to evangelize, expect human choice, ect. I sense that Hyper-Calvinist are simply Calvinist who are willing to say what they profess they doctrines to say.

    it is simple misuses of scripture that lead to the wrong conclusions. for example Romans 3:11 applies to the one who says there is no God; it is not an all encompassing condemnation. Throughout the Old Testament there were righteous and unrighteous. There were those that sought God's ways and those that did not. All reformed theology does is the same thing that the world does - divorces man from any responsibility and we see the fruit it produces of the evil one.


    I don't believe this is a misuse of scripture in any way. Actually, it is you who is doing this. There is nothing in the context that suggests your interpretation that Romans 3:11 applies only to those who say there is no God. That is not even mentioned. Verse 9 makes it clear that the guilt of the human race is universal, both Jews and Gentiles are all under sin.

    9 What then? Are we better than they? Not at all; for we have already charged that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin; 10 as it is written,

    Of course people sought God in both the Old and New Testament, and these were people whom the Lord regenerated by the power of the Spirit. Left to himself, man does not seek God, even though He is commanded to do so.

    Post a comment

    Please enter the letter "a" in the field below: