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  • « Genesis in the 21st Century by Pastor John Samson | Main | Who is the Fool? »

    A Summary of Calvin’s Interpretation of Scripture

    A Summary of Calvin’s Interpretation of Scripture
    Compiled by Charles R. Biggs

    charles-biggs-small-file.jpg

    We can learn so much from our fathers (and mothers!) in the faith. Today's blog is on Calvin's Hermeneutical Method. I would encourage you to read and ponder how John Calvin interpreted his Bible.

    The Bible is God's Word; it is inspired and inerrant, yet it needs to be interpreted. We would all wish sometimes that God would have been pleased to give us an inspired interpretation of the Bible, but he gave us His Church.

    God in his goodness, gave to us His complete Word, and in his wisdom saw fit to gift and call imperfect people to be about the hard work of rightly interpreting it (Nehemiah 8:1ff; Eph. 4:11-16; 2 Timothy 3:15-17). John Calvin is one of the ablest and finest interpreters of God's holy, inspired, and inerrant word in the history of Christ's church. He was very careful to seek what God was saying to His Church, and to declare it in a way that is exemplary to us today.

    This short summary of Calvin's eight exegetical principles (with quotations from Calvin's other writings) is offered to you with hopes that you too can continue to learn not only the science, but also the art of interpreting God's Word. I have compiled the following short study from Sydney Greidanus' book 'Preaching Christ from the Old Testament', Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing, 1999 (Highly recommended book!!), John Calvin's 'Institutes of the Christian Religion' (also highly recommended), Calvin’s Commentaries (a must have!).

    God's Word is the only rule of faith and practice for the Christian. His people long to hear it rightly interpreted, so that they can better understand their faith and their life.

    May God grant a new reformation leading to great revival because men and women again will hear the Word of God rightly handled, and that God in His Spirit would correct, rebuke, encourage, and train us in His righteousness so that we might be thoroughly equipped for every good work (2 Tim. 3:16-17).

    I. Calvin’s Hermeneutical Method: Eight Exegetical Principles for Bible Study

    (1) Clarity and Brevity
    In a letter concerning his commentary on Romans, Calvin remarks that the best virtues of commentators are “clarity and brevity.” These virtues require the interpreter to aim for both transparency of exposition and focus. Calvin says, “Allegory is to be strictly excluded. When the purpose is to let the matter itself speak out in the exposition, there is no time for luxuriating in the wealth of problems that so many exegetes love, not for the sake of the text, but to draw attention to themselves” (Corpus Reformatorum, 59.33).

    (2) The Intention of the Author
    The constant search for the intention of the author is characteristic of Calvin’s commentaries. Calvin writes, “Since it is almost the interpreter’s only task to unfold the mind of the writer whom he has undertaken to expound, he misses the mark, or at least strays outside his limits, by the extent to which he leads his students away from the meaning of author [in the Bible].” Calvin underscores the seriousness of Biblical exposition: “It is presumptuous and almost blasphemous to turn the meaning of scripture around without due care, as though it were some game that we were playing” (Calvin, Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Romans and to the Thessalonians, 1.4).

    (3) The Historical Context
    In his Institutes, Calvin states, “There are many statements in Scripture the meaning of which depends upon their context” (4.16.23). In his commentaries, Calvin often sets forth the historical context of a passage before giving an exposition of the text. For example, in dealing with the Psalms, Calvin speaks of the ‘solemn assembly’ at which songs of praise were sung; of a ‘public occasion of thanksgiving’ in which the psalms of thanks had their setting; and…of a ‘festival of renewal of the covenant’ in which there was a solemn service of renewal and promises were signed and sealed and made binding by a covenant sacrifice” (Corpus Reformatorum, 59-60).

    (4) Original, Grammatical Meaning
    In opposing Origen and allegorical interpretation, Calvin asserts, “Let us know that the true meaning of Scripture is the genuine and simple one [germanus et simplex], and let us embrace and hold it tightly. Let us…boldly set aside as deadly corruptions, those fictitious expositions which lead us away from the literal sense” (Calvini Opera- Corpus Reformatorum, 50.237; Institutes, 4.17.22). One theologian (B. S. Childs) suggests that “Calvin does not…need to add a secondary or spiritual meaning to the text because the literal sense is its own witness to God’s divine plan” (Childs, Sensus Literalis, 87).

    (5) Literary Context
    A passage should be understood not only in its historical context but also in its literary context. One place where Calvin refers to this principle is in dealing with the many protestations of innocence in the Psalms: “If you try my heart, if you visit me by night, if you test me, you will find not wickedness in me” (Ps. 17:3). After listing about a dozen such passages as this one, Calvin writes, “As for the testimonies (passages) we have adduced at this point, they will not hinder us much if they are understood according to their context, or, in common parlance, circumstances.” And he comes to the conclusion that, although the godly may “defend their innocence against the hypocrisy of the ungodly, still, when they are dealing with God alone, all cry out with one voice: ‘If thou, O Lord, shouldst mark iniquity, Lord, who shall stand?’” (Institutes, 3.17.14). It is important to recognize genre or the type of literature you are reading. For example, is it poetry (like the Psalms); wisdom (Proverbs, Job); historical (Joshua, Samuel, Kings, Acts, etc.); epistles (Letters of Paul)?, etc.

    (6) Meaning Beyond the Literal Biblical Wording
    In dealing with the Decalogue, Calvin raises the issue of extending the meaning of a law beyond its literal meaning. He states as a general principle, “The commandments and prohibitions always contain more than is expressed in words.” But he seeks, “to temper this principle” so that it may not lead us “to twist Scripture.” He says, “We must if possible, therefore, find some way to lead us with straight, firm steps to the will of God. We must, I say, inquire how far interpretation ought to overstep the limits of the words themselves so that it may be seen to be…the Lawgiver’s pure and authentic meaning, faithfully rendered…Now I think this would be the best rule, if attention be directed to the reason of the commandment; that is, in each commandment to ponder why it was given to us.” In other words, Calvin looks beyond the literal meaning of a passage to the author’s goal. He uses as an example the fifth commandment, “Honor your father and your mother”: “The purpose of the 5th Commandment is that honor ought to be paid to those to whom God has assigned it. This, then, is the substance of the commandment: that it is right and pleasing to God for us to honor those on whom he has bestowed some excellence; and that he abhors contempt and stubbornness against them” (Institutes, 2.8.8). Calvin seems to follow the example of interpreting the Old Testament like our Lord Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5-7).

    (7) Figures of Speech
    For Calvin literal interpretation does not mean wooden literalism. He discusses at length the necessity of interpreting figures of speech as figures. Calvin observes, “Where Scripture calls God ‘a man of war’ (Ex. 15:3), because I see that this saying would be too harsh without interpretation, I do not doubt that it is a comparison drawn from men.” He draws attention to such statements in Scripture as: “God’s eyes see,” “It came up to his ears,” and “His hand extended.” These statements are anthropomorphic and must be so interpreted. Failure to do so, says Calvin, leads to “a boundless barbarism.” For what monstrous absurdities will these fanatical men not draw forth from Scripture if they be allowed…to establish what they please!” (Institutes, 4.17.23).

    (8) The Scope of Focus on the Person and Work of Christ
    Commenting on Jesus’ words, “These are the Scriptures that testify about me” (John 5:39, NIV), Calvin writes, “We ought to read the Scriptures with the express design of finding Christ in them. Whoever shall turn aside from this object, though he may weary himself throughout his whole life in learning, will never attain the knowledge of the truth; for what wisdom can we have without the wisdom of God?” (Calvin’s Comm. John 5:39).

    II. The Relation between the Old and New Testaments

    • Calvin is aware of differences between the OT and the NT, of course, but they pale in light of his emphasis on the unity. He writes, “I freely admit the differences in Scripture, to which attention is called, but in such a way as not to detract from its established unity.” For the differences “pertain to the manner of time period or epoch rather than to the substance…In this way there will be nothing to hinder the promises of the Old and New Testaments from remaining the same, nor from having the same foundation of these very promises - -Christ!” (Institutes, 2.11.1).

    • Calvin goes on to discuss at length five differences: (1) The OT stresses earthly benefits in contrast to the heavenly reality; (2) The OT speaks in images and shadows in contrast to “the substance”; (3) The OT has the character of the outward letter in contrast to the Spirit (Jer. 31:31-34); (4) The OT is characterized as bondage in contrast to freedom (Gal. 3-4); (5) The OT was restricted to one nation in contrast to all nations (Acts 2; cf. Gen. 15:1-6) (Institutes, 2.11.1-12).

    For Calvin, however, these differences between the OT and NT are only differences in the form of administration of the covenant, not in the substance of the covenant of grace. For example, in discussing the ceremonial law, Calvin argues that the ceremonies “have been abrogated not in effect but only in use. Christ by his coming has terminiated them, but has not deprived them of anything of their sanctity…Just as the ceremonies would have provided the people of the Old Covenant with an empty show if the poiwer of Christ’s death and resurrection had not been displayed therein; so, if they had not ceased, we would be unable today to discern for what purpose they were established” (Institutes, 2.7.16).

    • The major difference for Calvin between the OT and the NT is the degree of clarity regarding Jesus Christ and the Kingdom of God. As he says in one of his commentaries, “Under the Law was shadowed forth only in rude and imperfect lines what is under the Gospel set forth in living colors and graphically distinct.” Yet to believers in the Old Covenant and believers in the New Covenant, “the same Christ is exhibited, the same righteousness, sanctification, and salvation; and the difference only is in the manner of painting” (Comm. Heb. 10:1; Institutes, 1.11.10).

    III. Understanding in the Context of the Whole Bible

    • Because of his view of the unity of Scripture (the fact that the Holy Spirit is the One Author who inspires different authors), Calvin seeks to understand a passage within the overall thrust of Scripture. Today we speak of the hermeneutical circle (or spiral): one cannot understand a part without understanding the whole, and one cannot understand the whole without understanding the parts.

    The key question for Bible teachers is how to enter this hermeneutical circle in the right way. How does one gain a view of the whole of Scripture so as to understand and teach the parts correctly? Interestingly, in his Preface to his 'Institutes' Calvin declares that he wrote this work precisely to help his students gain an overall view of Scripture: “It has been my purpose in his labor to prepare and instruct candidates in sacred theology for the reading of the divine word, in order that they may be able both to have easy access to it and to advance in it without stumbling. For I believe I have so embraced the sum of religion in all its parts, and have arranged it in such an order, that if anyone rightly grasps it, it will not be difficult for him to determine what he ought to especially to seek in Scripture, and to what end he ought to relate its contents” (Institutes, Preface to 1559 edition).

    IV. Christocentric Interpretation

    (1) Against Allegory

    We want to consider Calvin’s ‘Christocentric Interpretation’ but we must understand that “allegory” or any type of “spiritual interpretation” was not Christ-centered interpretation. Calvin’s introduction to Chrysotom discloses his aversion to “twisting the plain meaning of the words” by way of allegorical interpretation. Commenting on “The letter kills, but the Spirit gives life” (2 Cor, 3:6), he writes, “This passage has been distorted and wrongly interpreted first by Origen and then by others…This error of allegory has been the source of many evils. Not only did it open the way for the adulteration of the natural meaning of Scripture but also set up boldness in allegorizing as the chief exegetical virtue.

    Thus many of the ancients without any restraint played all sorts of games with the sacred Word of God, as if they were tossing a ball to and fro. It also gave heretics a chance to throw the Church into turmoil, for when it is accepted practice for anybody to interpret any passage in any way he desired, any mad idea, however absurd or monstrous, could be introduced under the pretext of allegory” (Comm. 2 Cor. 3:6; Corpus Reformatorum, 50.40-41). In fact, Calvin considers allegorizing a ploy of Satan to undermine true biblical teaching. He asserts, “We must…entirely reject the allegories of Origen, and of others like him, which Satan, with the deepest subtlety, has endeavored to introduce into the Church, for the purpose of rendering the doctrine of Scripture ambiguous and destitute of all certainty and firmness” (Comm. Gen. 2:8; Gen. 6:14).

    (2) The Intention of the Holy Spirit

    • Since the Holy Spirit used human authors to communicate, we must never begin with the Spirit’s meaning without first considering the human author’s meaning which He used. Like the Incarnate Word who was 100% human and 100% divine in One Person, so the written Word is 100% human and 100% divine in One Book, the Bible. In addition to Calvin speaking of the human author’s intention, he also speaks of the “intention of the Holy Spirit” or the “intention of God.” For example, in rejecting a particular interpretation, Calvin says, “I think the Holy Spirit has a different intention here” (Comm. Daniel 12:4). By referring to the intention of the Holy Spirit, Calvin seems to be moving beyond the intention of the human author once established. Yet the two are intimately related (see above “incarnational analogy between Incarnate Word and Written Word of God: two natures, yet one”).

    • Calvin is unwilling to divorce the intention of the human writer from the meaning of the Holy Spirit. It is difficult to escape the conclusion that for him, the inspired intention, thoughts, and words of the prophet and of the Holy Spirit in the production of Scripture are so closely related there is no practical way to distinguish them” (D. Puckett, Calvin’s Exegesis, 36-37).

    (3) The Goal of Finding Christ in the Old Testament

    Jesus says to the Jews, “You diligently study the Scriptures, because you think by them you possess eternal life. These are the Scriptures that testify about me” (John 5:39, NIV). Calvin comments, “We ought to read the Scriptures with the express design of finding Christ in them…By the Scriptures, it is well known, is here meant the Old Testament; for it was not in the Gospel that Christ first began to be manifested, but, having received testimony from the Law and Prophets, he was openly exhibited in the Gospel” (Comm. John 5:39). Elsewhere he writes, “This is what we should in short seek in the whole of Scripture: truly to know Jesus Christ, and the infinite riches that are comprised in him and are offered to us by him from God the Father” (Calvin, Preface to the French Trans. Of the NT).

    (4) Progressive Revelation (Redemptive-History)

    In searching for Christ in the OT, Calvin is aware that God’s revelation concerning Christ is not as clear in the OT as it is in the NT. But even in the OT, it becomes ever clearer. Calvin seeks to convey this progression in revelation with images which move from shadow to reality and from spark to the sun. He writes in his Institutes, “The Lord held to this orderly plan in administering the covenant of his mercy: as the day of full revelation approached with the passing of time, the more he increased each day the brightness of its manifestation.

    Accordingly, at the beginning when the first promise of salvation was given to Adam (Gen. 3:15) it glowed like a feeble spark. Then, as it was added to, the light grew in fullness, breaking forth increasingly and shedding its radiance more widely. At last- - when all the clouds were dispersed- -Christ, the Sun of Righteousness, fully illumined the whole earth” (Institutes, 2.10.20). Progressive revelation, therefore, does not mean that God’s people in the OT were without any light. The patriarchs, says Calvin, were not “without the preaching that contains the hope of salvation and of eternal life, but…they only glimpsed from afar and in shadowy outline what we see today in full daylight” (Institutes, 2.7.16; 2.9.1; Comm. Gal. 3:23). How then is Christ present in the OT? From the evidence we can gather that Calvin would answer in at least three ways: (1) Christ is present in the OT as the eternal logos, (2) Christ as promise, and (3) Christ as type.

    CRB
    For more on John Calvin and his understanding of the Work of the Holy Spirit, Go to: http://www.aplacefortruth.org/studies.htm

    Posted by Charles Biggs on February 8, 2007 10:35 AM

    Comments

    Pastor Biggs,

    If I might build on the inspiration I have just received reading this post of yours on Calvin's way of rightly dividing Scripture, I would go on a journey now and give plain meaning to a topic of Scripture about Abraham and his true offspring, who are the true heirs of the world?

    If it comes on, my response, I will know it was right or wrong, but it is your iron I seek nevertheless.

    It is about the Left and Right, the older, the younger, Christ and CHURCH in Him and the plain meaning of the text?

    Here goes:

    Let me start by saying it is about 7 p.m. Feb. 8, 2007 and from here I want to look back in time to some things written and to the "literal" time when these things were written, first in two places from the writings of the Apostle Paul, by Paul's ghost writers then and from the old. First look at First Corinthians 10 and second then look at Romans 15. And after that I want to look at a couple of things from Genesis 48, from 1 Chronicles 5, 6 and finally Psalm 78 and make a point about the “right and left good work” of the Lord Jesus Christ through His Currently Active Church within the Church and in the world today concerning the calling Paul points too in Ephesians 3 and the “hope of Abraham” put upon his true descendents written about in Romans 4 and the active authority of the Church in Romans 5.

    ESV, 1Co 10:11 Now these things happened to them as an example, but they were written down for our instruction, on whom the end of the ages has come.

    AND

    ESV, Rom 15:4 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope.
    Rom 15:5 May the God of endurance and encouragement grant you to live in such harmony with one another, in accord with Christ Jesus,
    Rom 15:6 that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

    Paul is referring to what was "written"; looking at historical records dear to all Jews, both now and then of these “holy” writings Paul read. As was mentioned in John Samson's article also, Jesus Himself quoted what was written in the Good Book from Genesis and other places.

    I believe I have a revelation for the Nation of Israel and all Jews. I have seen it come to pass some in these last days by my frequent visits to "believing" Jews, in Israel, in Belgium, and other various places here in the United States and other places in Europe and Asia too. I make this distinction, not a revelation to the Messianic Jews believing in the Lord Jesus Christ of the Gospel, about that man, that man of History; but those Jews looking for the "soon" coming Messiah/Christ, who will get them out of the legal jeopardy they will soon find themselves embroiled in in the years to come in this current after 1948 United Nations recognized nation of Israel. Prophesy is going to be fulfilled.

    I will point to Genesis 48 now and this:

    ESV, Gen 48:14 And Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, who was the younger, and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossing his hands (for Manasseh was the firstborn).
    Gen 48:15 And he blessed Joseph and said, "The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day,
    Gen 48:16 the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the boys; and in them let my name be carried on, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth."
    Gen 48:17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him, and he took his father's hand to move it from Ephraim's head to Manasseh's head.
    Gen 48:18 And Joseph said to his father, "Not this way, my father; since this one is the firstborn, put your right hand on his head."
    Gen 48:19 But his father refused and said, "I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great. Nevertheless, his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his offspring shall become a multitude of nations."
    Gen 48:20 So he blessed them that day, saying, "By you Israel will pronounce blessings, saying, 'God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh.'" Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.


    Well now, consider that in light of this from 1 Chronicles 5, 6 and then of some deadening verses of Psalm 78.

    ESV, 1Ch 5:1 The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (for he was the firstborn, but because he defiled his father's couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, so that he could not be enrolled as the oldest son;
    1Ch 5:2 though Judah became strong among his brothers and a chief came from him, yet the birthright belonged to Joseph),

    1Ch 6:31 These are the men whom David put in charge of the service of song in the house of the LORD after the ark rested there.
    1Ch 6:32 They ministered with song before the tabernacle of the tent of meeting until Solomon built the house of the LORD in Jerusalem, and they performed their service according to their order.

    1Ch 6:39 and his brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, namely, Asaph the son of Berechiah, son of Shimea,

    1Ch 6:44 On the left hand were their brothers, the sons of Merari: Ethan the son of Kishi, son of Abdi, son of Malluch,

    I want to say, “listen up Jews looking for the Messiah in these perilous days that we live in now; He has come already and by His death, burial and resurrection, you are FREE FROM THE BONDAGE OF THE LAW AND THE CURSE OF THINKING YOU ARE GOD’S CHOSEN PEOPLE appointed in these days to bring Peace to the world order. It hasn’t worked before 1948, why do you believe these things now as though the world is going to listen to your message of Salvation through your [bloodline claim] to Abraham as your justification that you are God’s Chosen people and therefore through your Orthodoxy the world will come into a right standing before God and PEACE? Have you not read and do you not yet understand Psalm 78?”

    ESV, Psa 78:1 A Maskil of Asaph. Give ear, O my people, to my teaching; incline your ears to the words of my mouth!
    Psa 78:2 I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings from of old,
    Psa 78:3 things that we have heard and known, that our fathers have told us.
    Psa 78:4 We will not hide them from their children, but tell to the coming generation the glorious deeds of the LORD, and his might, and the wonders that he has done.
    Psa 78:5 He established a testimony in Jacob and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers to teach to their children,
    Psa 78:6 that the next generation might know them, the children yet unborn, and arise and tell them to their children,
    Psa 78:7 so that they should set their hope in God and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments;
    Psa 78:8 and that they should not be like their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation, a generation whose heart was not steadfast, whose spirit was not faithful to God.
    Psa 78:9 The Ephraimites, armed with the bow, turned back on the day of battle.
    Psa 78:10 They did not keep God's covenant, but refused to walk according to his law.
    Psa 78:11 They forgot his works and the wonders that he had shown them.


    Well, as a famous Astronaut said: “HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM”.

    God gave the Promise to Abraham that he would be heir of the world, true enough.

    God then came and gave an affirmation to Isaac and then to Jacob ABOUT THE PROMISE TO ABRAHAM. But after that things changed and Joseph and his sons became the ones to whom the Jews were to look too when it comes to the blessing of God to ALL the nations. Yes, it’s true, as is said above about Judah in 1 Chronicles 5:2… “and a chief came from him”.

    But wait, doesn’t it say in Psalms 78 that the Ephraimites turned back on the day of battle and did not keep God’s covenant and refused to walk according to His law? Yes, why yes it does.

    Well then, what’s the point here? The point is God is still looking to the “right good works” of Christ and His Church to be His messenger to the world of the RIGHTEOUS BLESSINGS UPON ABRAHAM AND HIS TRUE OFFSPRING. Paul writes in Ephesians 3:

    Eph 3:8 To me, though I am the very least of all the saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ,
    Eph 3:9 and to bring to light for everyone what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things,
    Eph 3:10 so that through the church the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly places.
    Eph 3:11 This was according to the eternal purpose that he has realized in Christ Jesus our Lord,
    Eph 3:12 in whom we have boldness and access with confidence through our faith in him.

    Oh the mystery of Christ and God!

    So then, it is this CHURCH that has the right to claim as their inheritance the WORLD. The devil, Satan has been judged already and has no claim to it but as yet he has not been cast out:

    ESV, Rom 4:7 "Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;
    Rom 4:8 blessed is the man against whom the Lord will not count his sin."
    Rom 4:9 Is this blessing then only for the circumcised, or also for the uncircumcised? We say that faith was counted to Abraham as righteousness.
    Rom 4:10 How then was it counted to him? Was it before or after he had been circumcised? It was not after, but before he was circumcised.
    Rom 4:11 He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well,
    Rom 4:12 and to make him the father of the circumcised who are not merely circumcised but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had before he was circumcised.
    Rom 4:13 For the promise to Abraham and his offspring that he would be heir of the world did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith.
    Rom 4:14 For if it is the adherents of the law who are to be the heirs, faith is null and the promise is void.

    I hope I do justice to God’s Word about the inheritance to Abraham and his true offspring and bring the plain meaning of Scripture hereon? I do believe it is fair to say it is about time now for the CHURCH to rise up and lay claim to the world and reign on earth as Christ reigns in Heaven. The CHURCH is sent to those of the circumcision and uncircumcision, and to barbarians and slaves and all free men in every nation, tribe, kindred and tongue on earth? It is embodied within the Church the TRUTH of the Law and the Gospel. It then is of the Church Christ will speak to the world through, not the Jews. It is by the Church then that the end of the ages will come:

    ESV, Rom 5:17 If, because of one man's trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ.

    Dear Brother,

    Greetings

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    In Him,
    Mehwish

    Email: mehwishtts@gmail.com

    Beware: The email from Pakistan is very common and often has different names added to it at different times, though the content itself is always the same. Basically, they all come from men in the country who want cash! And mostly this is fraudulent. Sorry!

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